Camp Coordination and Camp management (CCCM)

Camp Coordination and Camp management (CCCM)

Key environmental issues linked to camp coordination and camp management

Camp Coordination and Camp management (CCCM)

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Every camp or settlement will have environmental concerns and these should be taken into account from the beginning of site selection through to decommissioning.  

Some of the most common environmental issues to consider, that will vary depending on the location and type of emergency, are:

Top tips for environmentally sustainable camp management include:

For detailed guidance on environmentally sustainable settlement and camp management see the Camp Management Toolkit, Chapter 6 on Environment.

Resources

Key Resource

Bidibidi Refugee Settlement: Environmental Scoping Report and Recommendations

Summary

The report presents the results of a September 2019 environmental scoping mission by the UN Environment Programme / OCHA Joint Environment Unit (JEU) and Norwegian Refugee Council (NRC). The Bidibidi Refugee Settlement is located in the West Nile Area of Uganda, and is home to over 270,000 South Sudanese refugees — the second largest refugee settlement in the world.

 

The purpose of the mission was to highlight key areas of environmental risk in the NRC West Nile Programme while using, testing and promoting the Nexus Environmental Assessment Tool (NEAT+). The mission was financially supported by NRC, UNEP and OCHA.

Environmental Scoping in Uganda

The scoping took place in Bidibidi Settlement Zones 3 and 5, locations of a future NRC and partner funded European Union Trust Fund (EUTF) programme with a strong emphasis on agriculture and food security.

These zones were chosen in order to test the differences in environmental sensitivity between the newest established Zone 5 and the older Zone 3. Bidibidi Refugee Settlement was opened in August 2016 to accommodate a high influx of South Sudanese refugees.

To support the needs of the South Sudanese refugees, who primarily come from the Equatoria region, and the host communities of Bidibidi refugee settlement, there are over 30 civil society and government organizations working within Bidibidi.

Current environmental dialogue about Bidibidi is often focused on minimizing land degradation and deforestation, due to host and refugee community dependence on biomass for fuel. This concern is well documented by both government and and civil society organizations, with several mitigation strategies already underway.

The scoping mission additionally identified environmental concerns that seem under-defined by current programmes of work in Bidibidi. Of particular concern is the lack of waste management, leading to increased risks to human health, and lack of awareness about environmentally sustainable behaviours.

Further reading/Download

The findings of this report are based on a combination of a field test of the NEAT+, eight focus group discussions including participatory mapping with refugee and host community groups, and a secondary data review.

Download the full report here.

 

To learn more about NEAT+ please visit https://ehaconnect.org/resources/neat

To find out how it can support your organization’s planning, contact the UN Environment/Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs Joint Unit (ochaunep@un.org).

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The Nexus Environmental Assessment Tool (NEAT+)

The Nexus Environmental Assessment Tool (NEAT+) is an environmental screening tool that allows humanitarian actors to quickly identify issues of environmental concern before designing longer term emergency or recovery interventions. It is conducted on Kobo data collection platform (on phone, tablet or computer) and produces an automatically generated report in Excel, categorizing areas of risk into high, medium and low and providing associated narrative that can be helpful towards mitigation.

The NEAT+ and associated guidance material provide more detail on the tool.

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The Rapid Environmental Impact Assessment in Disasters (REA) tool

The Rapid Environmental Impact Assessment in Disaster (REA) is a tool to identify, define, and prioritize potential environmental impacts in disaster situations.

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The Sphere Handbook

The Handbook is one of the most widely known and internationally recognized tools for the delivery of the quality humanitarian response

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The Framework for Assessing, Monitoring and Evaluating (FRAME) Toolkit

The FRAME Toolkit is a Framework for Assessing, Monitoring and Evaluating the Environment in Refugee-Related Operations

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Camp Coordination and Camp Management Toolkit: Chapter on Environment

For detailed guidance on environmentally sustainable settlement and camp management see the Camp Management Toolkit, Chapter 6 on Environment.

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Global Shelter Cluster: Identifying Critical Environmental Considerations in Shelter Site Selection, Construction, Management and Decommissioning

This checklist provides emergency shelter project managers a means to quickly assess shelter-related environmental impacts and identify practical actions to address these impacts.

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Green Recovery & Reconstruction Toolkit: Training Toolkit for Humanitarian Aid (GRRT)

The GRRT is a toolkit and training program designed to increase awareness and knowledge of environmentally responsible disaster response approaches.

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Additional Resource

Colombia – NEAT+ Environmental Scoping Report and Recommendations, November 2019

Environmental Situation Analysis, Preparedness

This report presents the results of an environmental scoping mission using the Nexus Environmental Assessment Tool (NEAT+) by the UNEP / OCHA Joint Environment Unit (JEU) and the UN Refugee Agency (UNHCR) to the Integrated Assistance Centre (Centro de Atención Integral, or CAI) in Maicao, northeastern Colombia.

Download the NEAT+ Colombia Environmental Scoping Report here

The purpose of the mission was to highlight key areas of environmental risk in UNHCR’s programming in the CAI and neighbouring Chichituy host community while applying and promoting the Nexus Environmental Assessment Tool (NEAT+).  The mission took place from 4 to 13 November 2019 and was financially supported by UNHCR, UNEP and OCHA.

Key findings and recommendations cover programmatic, strategic and external advocacy relevant recommendations. These encompass the need to increase and prioritize environmental education (waste management and lack of social cohesion), switching to green energy solutions, reducing disaster risk from flooding and soil erosion (through drainage systems as well as nature-based solutions), and enhancing the current community engagement and accountability mechanisms in place to promote social cohesion.

Environmental Scoping in Colombia

Over the past years, the population of Maicao has increased from 160,000 to approximately 220,000, and about 27 per cent of the city’s population is now Venezuelan. The purpose of the mission was to highlight key areas of environmental risk in UNHCR’s programming and to apply and promote the Nexus Environmental Assessment Tool (NEAT+).

The NEAT+ field test took place in UNHCR Reception Centre “CAI” near the city of Maicao, La Guajira Department, and neighbouring communities.  Separate environmental sensitivity assessments were completed by a group of UNHCR and partner technical staff in the CAI, including a government representative. WASH and Shelter UNHCR technical experts completed the activity modules, finding that most submodules were relevant to the activities of the CAI. The food security and livelihoods (FSL) module was filled in by Acción Contra el Hambre (ACH) as the lead partner for FSL with the host community. This was the first time that the NEAT+ was used in a reception camp setting and on such a small scale, and the results proved accurate.

The findings and recommendations of this report are based on a combination of a field test of the NEAT+, four focus group discussions (FGDs) including participatory mapping with CAI residents, host community and technical staff groups; and a secondary data review. Tailored recommendations are provided with both for mitigating environmental risks at the CAI, and more broadly on a national and global level for promotion and expansion of the NEAT+.

Download

Download the full report here.

To learn more about NEAT+ please visit https://www.eecentre.org/resources/neat/

To find out how it can support your organization’s planning, contact the UNEP/OCHA Joint Environment Unit (ochaunep@un.org).

Additional Resource

Evaluating Climate Vulnerability in Humanitarian Hotspots

This study, conducted in 2019, focuses on the definition of climate vulnerability with operational and political perspectives and delivers guidelines for assessing climate vulnerability in long-term crises, such as in conflict-affected countries and recurrent disaster-prone areas.

The research draws on an extensive academic literature review in the fields of biology, political science, sociology and geography. It derives data from a variety of innovative projects and methods in the field of development and humanitarian aid, induced and encouraged by the Grand Bargain. In addition, the research offers a contribution to the IKI Project carried out by the UNEP/OCHA Joint Environment Unit in the refugee camp of Gitega Province in Burundi.

The study is available in French only.

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Additional Resource

Myanmar – NEAT+ Environmental Scoping Report and Recommendations, October 2019

This report presents the results of an environmental scoping mission using the Nexus Environmental Assessment Tool (NEAT+) by the UNEP / OCHA Joint Environment Unit (JEU) and Norwegian Refugee Council (NRC) to Hpa An Township, Kayin State in Southeast Myanmar.

The purpose of the mission was to highlight key areas of environmental risks in the Hpa-An Township while using, testing and promoting the Nexus Environmental Assessment Tool (NEAT+). The mission took place from 23 September to 1 October 2019 and was financially supported by NRC, UNEP and OCHA.

Key findings (and related recommendations) cover programmatic, strategic and external advocacy relevant recommendations. These encompass the need to prioritise disaster risk reduction interventions and education, the large gap in waste management, climate change, improving the capacity for screening environmental risks, and suggestions for the Myanmar Humanitarian Fund.

Environmental Scoping in Myanmar

There are approximately 5,600 internally displaced people in Kayin, mostly from conflict and environmental issues like river bank erosion. The purpose of the mission was to highlight key areas of environmental risk in NRC’s programming in Hpa An, and to apply and promote the Nexus Environmental Assessment Tool (NEAT+). The JEU team also trained seven NRC staff in the use of NEAT+ so that it can be applied to other projects across Myanmar.

The NEAT+ field test took place in two locations within Hpa An Township: Saint Chaung and Sein Pa La village. These locations were selected by NRC. Separate environmental sensitivity assessments were completed for each location. The Livelihoods and Food Security (LFS) expert completed the activity module based on NRC’s current activities in Sein Pa La village (Agriculture, Livestock and Irrigation modules). Neither the WASH nor the Shelter and Settlements modules were completed as NRC does not have these specific technical activities in the area of the pilot.

The findings of this report are based on a combination of a field test of the NEAT+, six focus group discussions including participatory mapping with community groups, and a secondary data review. In this report, the results of the NEAT+ are analyzed in the context of the focus group discussions, secondary data review, and the NRC programme of work to provide tailored recommendations for mitigating environmental risks in Hpa An, and more broadly on a national level.

 

Download

 

To learn more about NEAT+ please visit https://ehaconnect.org/resources/neat

To find out how it can support your organization’s planning, contact the UNEP/OCHA Joint Environment Unit (ochaunep@un.org).

Download

Additional Resource

Reducing Environmental Impacts of Vector Control Chemicals in Emergencies

Disasters can create environments in which vectors can increase dramatically and spread diseases. However, the chemicals most commonly used to dispose of these vectors can damage the environment and health. This paper provides guidance on how to create post-disaster sanitary efforts that remove the amount of vectors while simultaneously reducing harm to the environment and human health.

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Moving Energy Initiative

The Moving Energy Initiative is an initiative which seeks to integrate clean energy in displacement settings with the help of original research. The Initiative provides reports and tool kits which details the costs, risks and benefits of various energy systems when organizing cooking, power and future sustainability in refugee camps.

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The Knowledge Hub on Health and Migration

The Knowledge Hub on Health and Migration is a joint effort committed to building expertise on the public health aspects of migration and making  information in this area widely available. The Hub provides tool kits, training materials, reports and schooling to better prepare for the health needs which arise during large-scale migration events.

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Prepare Center

PrepareCenter.org is an initiative established by the Red Cross which provides reports, case studies and training materials to encourage better preparedness for emergencies. It also provides insights and tools to integrate themes such as climate change, environment and urban resilience in disaster preparedness.

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Moving Energy Initiative (MEI) – Innovative Financing for Humanitarian Energy Interventions

This paper explores the increase in resources and funding needed to improve the access of displaced people to modern and sustainable energy services.

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Moving Energy Initiative (MEI) – Adopting a Market-based Approach to Boost Energy Access in Displaced Contexts

This report issued by the Moving Energy Initiative (ME) provides information on aid agencies and the risk of undermining market systems if they do not consider established markets in their planning. In worst-case scenarios, inadequate planning can weaken a population’s access to basic goods, services and income-generating opportunities. In the humanitarian sector, market-based approaches can support access to affordable, quality goods and services that are critical to the survival of vulnerable populations. This can reduce the risk of undermining local recovery while also being more cost-efficient and better targeted than traditional humanitarian programming to meet individual needs.

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Moving Energy Initiative (MEI) – Infrastructure Management Contracts: Improving Energy Asset Management in Displacement Settings

This paper highlights a number of options for managing electricity infrastructure in refugee camps. It outlines the challenges, opportunities and operational implications associated with them using the Kalobeyei settlement in Kenya as a case study.

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Environmental Impact Assessments in Refugee Crises

A short report on environmental impact assessments in refugee crises

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Groupe URD: Implications of Refugee Settlements on the Natural Environment and on Refugee and Host Community Resilience

This study by Groupe URD aimed to identify and measure the environmental impact of forced migration in two contexts: Lebanon, where there are a large number of Syrian refugees who have fled the crisis in their country, and Cameroon, where there are Central African and Nigerian refugees. It was carried out in 2017 as part of a research project for the Global Disaster Preparedness Center.

Download

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NRC: The Ecological Impact of Refugee/Returnee Programmes

An Norwegian Refugee Council evaluation report on the ecological impacts of refugee programs and actions taken to mitigate such impacts.

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UNHCR: Refugee Operations and Environmental Management

Guidance by UNHCR on environmental management during refugee operations.

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UNHCR Environmental Guidelines

Key environmental considerations in UNHCR’s operations

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A Note on Environmental Mainstreaming

Environmental mainstreaming is a process by which environmental considerations become part of the existing core work of a predominantly non-environmental sector. This short explanation outlines the mechanisms of environmental mainstreaming and how it typically occurs.

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Additional Resource

Shelter Sector Environmental Guidelines

This document focuses on housing reconstruction after natural hazard events that must be carried out in highly difficult circumstances and there are expectations to be operational very quickly. Its purpose is (1) to convey the full range of environmental and environmental health issues associated with housing construction, and (2) to provide a guided framework for considering these issues in the siting, design and implementation of housing projects, particularly in post-disaster reconstruction and in risk-prone areas.

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