Shelter and Settlements

Shelter and Settlements

Key environmental issues linked to shelter and settlements programming

Shelter and Settlements

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Shelter and settlements programming carries one of the highest risks of negative environmental impacts in disaster management. However it also represents an opportunity to minimise potential environmental impacts by thorough assessments and robust environmental management. Inappropriately informed, designed or implemented shelter and settlement programming can lead to – but not exclusively – unsustainable rates of deforestation, land and soil degradation, loss of biodiversity, and poorly managed waste streams. This can subsequently lead to a loss of livelihoods, compromised recovery efforts and diminished community resilience.

Shelter and settlements programming can directly cause environmental impacts, for example through material usage, waste generation and construction activities; and indirectly through promoting detrimental interactions between people and the environment. Quality assurance includes promoting environmental sustainability – a component of all quality programming – through shelter and shelter assistance and prevention and mitigation of negative environmental impacts. This is explicitly stated in the Core Humanitarian Standard that recognises minimising environmental impact as a key component of quality humanitarian response. The Sphere Handbook: Humanitarian Charter and Minimum Standards in Humanitarian Response has a specific standard on Environmental Sustainability in Shelter and Settlements Programming.

Climate change acts as environmental threat and impact multiplier in shelter and settlements programming. Programming needs to acknowledge potential risks, and shelters and siting should reduce exposure and increase resilience to climate variability and change. The capacity of the local environment to provide key services, such as resource provisioning or natural protection against hazards, should be safeguarded.

For a full checklist of environmental issues to consider in shelter programming, consult the checklist on Identifying Critical Environmental Considerations in Shelter Site Selection, Construction, Management and Decommissioning of the Global Shelter Cluster. The NEAT+ [link to download the tool and guidance] screening tool shelter chapter can also be used as a checklist of the major issues of concern to factor in while planning a shelter project. Some of the main issues to consider are:

Siting – The shelter location should be in a safe setting with adequate space for provisioning of latrines, water points, washing areas etc. Allow extra space for, and support to, household vegetable gardens to help increase vegetation cover, but also nutrition security. Consider the risks posed to, and by, the surrounding environment, such as protected areas, forests and industry.

Design – Integrate environmental impact analysis in all shelter and settlement planning. Promote energy efficiency by orienting buildings to limit or increase solar heating (depending on the local climate). Incorporating vegetation on the site can promote water retention and reduce flooding.

Materials – Selecting the most sustainable materials and techniques ensures local natural resources are not depleted and lessens long-term environmental damage. Locally available shelter materials are recommended, provided they do not negatively impact the local environment (e.g. unsustainable extraction of sand and gravel from rivers, felling of trees).

Construction – Salvage and reuse, recycle or repurpose materials including debris. Communities trained in construction of their own houses can create new employment opportunities.

Household items – Reduce packaging material or support the reuse of this for other purposes. Distribute shelter material that can be easily reused if relocation occurs. Implement a Solid Waste Management System and promote composting of biodegradable material.

Energy – Establish, restore and promote safe, reliable affordable and environmentally sustainable energy supply systems. Replace the use of fired bricks with Soil-Stabilized Blocks (SSB) or Cement-Stabilized Blocks (CSB). Promote alternatives such as fuel-efficient stoves to reduce use of wood, solar panels for lighting and pumps. Supporting markets for alternative technologies could help a more widespread adoption. Include fuel efficient cooking techniques in trainings.

Resources

Key Resource

Environmental Mainstreaming in Humanitarian Interventions

This report presents the key findings, good practices and recommendations of a study conducted by a group of LSE researchers, commissioned by the UNEP/OCHA Joint Environment Unit (JEU) together with the Global Shelter Cluster ECoP. The study analyzes the state of play on the adoption and implementation of environmental policies in humanitarian organizations and the extent to which environmental organizations have adopted policies related to humanitarian interventions. A key finding is that while the majority of the humanitarian organizations surveyed have or are developing environmental policies, these are often not consistently implemented, monitored and evaluated. Thus, their impact in practice remains unclear.

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Bidibidi Refugee Settlement: Environmental Scoping Report and Recommendations

Summary

The report presents the results of a September 2019 environmental scoping mission by the UN Environment Programme / OCHA Joint Environment Unit (JEU) and Norwegian Refugee Council (NRC). The Bidibidi Refugee Settlement is located in the West Nile Area of Uganda, and is home to over 270,000 South Sudanese refugees — the second largest refugee settlement in the world.

 

The purpose of the mission was to highlight key areas of environmental risk in the NRC West Nile Programme while using, testing and promoting the Nexus Environmental Assessment Tool (NEAT+). The mission was financially supported by NRC, UNEP and OCHA.

Environmental Scoping in Uganda

The scoping took place in Bidibidi Settlement Zones 3 and 5, locations of a future NRC and partner funded European Union Trust Fund (EUTF) programme with a strong emphasis on agriculture and food security.

These zones were chosen in order to test the differences in environmental sensitivity between the newest established Zone 5 and the older Zone 3. Bidibidi Refugee Settlement was opened in August 2016 to accommodate a high influx of South Sudanese refugees.

To support the needs of the South Sudanese refugees, who primarily come from the Equatoria region, and the host communities of Bidibidi refugee settlement, there are over 30 civil society and government organizations working within Bidibidi.

Current environmental dialogue about Bidibidi is often focused on minimizing land degradation and deforestation, due to host and refugee community dependence on biomass for fuel. This concern is well documented by both government and and civil society organizations, with several mitigation strategies already underway.

The scoping mission additionally identified environmental concerns that seem under-defined by current programmes of work in Bidibidi. Of particular concern is the lack of waste management, leading to increased risks to human health, and lack of awareness about environmentally sustainable behaviours.

Further reading/Download

The findings of this report are based on a combination of a field test of the NEAT+, eight focus group discussions including participatory mapping with refugee and host community groups, and a secondary data review.

Download the full report here.

 

To learn more about NEAT+ please visit https://ehaconnect.org/resources/neat

To find out how it can support your organization’s planning, contact the UN Environment/Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs Joint Unit (ochaunep@un.org).

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The Nexus Environmental Assessment Tool (NEAT+)

The Nexus Environmental Assessment Tool (NEAT+) is an environmental screening tool that allows humanitarian actors to quickly identify issues of environmental concern before designing longer term emergency or recovery interventions. It is conducted on Kobo data collection platform (on phone, tablet or computer) and produces an automatically generated report in Excel, categorizing areas of risk into high, medium and low and providing associated narrative that can be helpful towards mitigation.

The NEAT+ and associated guidance material provide more detail on the tool.

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The Rapid Environmental Impact Assessment in Disasters (REA) tool

The Rapid Environmental Impact Assessment in Disaster (REA) is a tool to identify, define, and prioritize potential environmental impacts in disaster situations.

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The Sphere Handbook

The Handbook is one of the most widely known and internationally recognized tools for the delivery of the quality humanitarian response

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The Framework for Assessing, Monitoring and Evaluating (FRAME) Toolkit

The FRAME Toolkit is a Framework for Assessing, Monitoring and Evaluating the Environment in Refugee-Related Operations

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Looking Through an Environmental Lens: Implications and opportunities associated with Cash Transfer Programming in humanitarian response

In this report, the authors explore the relationship between Cash Transfer Programming and the environment in humanitarian action in light of the rise in cash-based assistance and the changing landscape of humanitarian modalities. Looking through an environmental lens, the expansion of cash-based response introduces both new opportunities and additional complexity in the interaction between humanitarianism and the environment.

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Sphere Handbook Shelter Standards

The Sphere Minimum Standards for shelter and settlements are a practical expression of the right to shelter in humanitarian contexts. The standards are grounded in the beliefs, principles, duties and rights declared in the Humanitarian Charter. These include the right to life with dignity, the right to protection and security, and the right to receive humanitarian assistance on the basis of need.

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Global Shelter Cluster Environment Community of Practice

The Global Shelter Cluster provides technical advice, including on environment, through the following email address helpdesk@sheltercluster.org

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Green building material selection and use guide

Practical guidelines for environmentally responsible selection, sourcing, use and disposal of construction material.

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Global Shelter Cluster: Identifying Critical Environmental Considerations in Shelter Site Selection, Construction, Management and Decommissioning

This checklist provides emergency shelter project managers a means to quickly assess shelter-related environmental impacts and identify practical actions to address these impacts.

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Green Recovery & Reconstruction Toolkit: Training Toolkit for Humanitarian Aid (GRRT)

The GRRT is a toolkit and training program designed to increase awareness and knowledge of environmentally responsible disaster response approaches.

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Colombia – NEAT+ Environmental Scoping Report and Recommendations, November 2019

Environmental Situation Analysis, Preparedness

This report presents the results of an environmental scoping mission using the Nexus Environmental Assessment Tool (NEAT+) by the UNEP / OCHA Joint Environment Unit (JEU) and the UN Refugee Agency (UNHCR) to the Integrated Assistance Centre (Centro de Atención Integral, or CAI) in Maicao, northeastern Colombia.

Download the NEAT+ Colombia Environmental Scoping Report here

The purpose of the mission was to highlight key areas of environmental risk in UNHCR’s programming in the CAI and neighbouring Chichituy host community while applying and promoting the Nexus Environmental Assessment Tool (NEAT+).  The mission took place from 4 to 13 November 2019 and was financially supported by UNHCR, UNEP and OCHA.

Key findings and recommendations cover programmatic, strategic and external advocacy relevant recommendations. These encompass the need to increase and prioritize environmental education (waste management and lack of social cohesion), switching to green energy solutions, reducing disaster risk from flooding and soil erosion (through drainage systems as well as nature-based solutions), and enhancing the current community engagement and accountability mechanisms in place to promote social cohesion.

Environmental Scoping in Colombia

Over the past years, the population of Maicao has increased from 160,000 to approximately 220,000, and about 27 per cent of the city’s population is now Venezuelan. The purpose of the mission was to highlight key areas of environmental risk in UNHCR’s programming and to apply and promote the Nexus Environmental Assessment Tool (NEAT+).

The NEAT+ field test took place in UNHCR Reception Centre “CAI” near the city of Maicao, La Guajira Department, and neighbouring communities.  Separate environmental sensitivity assessments were completed by a group of UNHCR and partner technical staff in the CAI, including a government representative. WASH and Shelter UNHCR technical experts completed the activity modules, finding that most submodules were relevant to the activities of the CAI. The food security and livelihoods (FSL) module was filled in by Acción Contra el Hambre (ACH) as the lead partner for FSL with the host community. This was the first time that the NEAT+ was used in a reception camp setting and on such a small scale, and the results proved accurate.

The findings and recommendations of this report are based on a combination of a field test of the NEAT+, four focus group discussions (FGDs) including participatory mapping with CAI residents, host community and technical staff groups; and a secondary data review. Tailored recommendations are provided with both for mitigating environmental risks at the CAI, and more broadly on a national and global level for promotion and expansion of the NEAT+.

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Download the full report here.

To learn more about NEAT+ please visit https://www.eecentre.org/resources/neat/

To find out how it can support your organization’s planning, contact the UNEP/OCHA Joint Environment Unit (ochaunep@un.org).

Additional Resource

Environmental Checklist for Shelter Response

The Environmental Checklist & Guidance for Shelter Response in Vanuatu was produced to fill the knowledge gap of the Vanuatu Shelter Cluster highlighted during past responses. The Checklist and associated Guidance Notes (in Annexes) link to the Cluster’s Technical Guidelines for Shelter Preparedness and Response to Natural Hazards and aims to inform environmentally sustainable shelter programming by making providing information about environmental considerations, impacts, concerns related to shelter operations. The Environmental Checklist for Shelter Response is designed to guide the shelter coordination team, program managers and field staff through the steps required to ensure that environmental considerations are adequately considered and implemented in humanitarian shelter programs. The tool is in the pilot phase and will be updated after being tested in future responses.

Download the Checklist here

Download the Guidance here

 

 

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Evaluating Climate Vulnerability in Humanitarian Hotspots

This study, conducted in 2019, focuses on the definition of climate vulnerability with operational and political perspectives and delivers guidelines for assessing climate vulnerability in long-term crises, such as in conflict-affected countries and recurrent disaster-prone areas.

The research draws on an extensive academic literature review in the fields of biology, political science, sociology and geography. It derives data from a variety of innovative projects and methods in the field of development and humanitarian aid, induced and encouraged by the Grand Bargain. In addition, the research offers a contribution to the IKI Project carried out by the UNEP/OCHA Joint Environment Unit in the refugee camp of Gitega Province in Burundi.

The study is available in French only.

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Myanmar – NEAT+ Environmental Scoping Report and Recommendations, October 2019

This report presents the results of an environmental scoping mission using the Nexus Environmental Assessment Tool (NEAT+) by the UNEP / OCHA Joint Environment Unit (JEU) and Norwegian Refugee Council (NRC) to Hpa An Township, Kayin State in Southeast Myanmar.

The purpose of the mission was to highlight key areas of environmental risks in the Hpa-An Township while using, testing and promoting the Nexus Environmental Assessment Tool (NEAT+). The mission took place from 23 September to 1 October 2019 and was financially supported by NRC, UNEP and OCHA.

Key findings (and related recommendations) cover programmatic, strategic and external advocacy relevant recommendations. These encompass the need to prioritise disaster risk reduction interventions and education, the large gap in waste management, climate change, improving the capacity for screening environmental risks, and suggestions for the Myanmar Humanitarian Fund.

Environmental Scoping in Myanmar

There are approximately 5,600 internally displaced people in Kayin, mostly from conflict and environmental issues like river bank erosion. The purpose of the mission was to highlight key areas of environmental risk in NRC’s programming in Hpa An, and to apply and promote the Nexus Environmental Assessment Tool (NEAT+). The JEU team also trained seven NRC staff in the use of NEAT+ so that it can be applied to other projects across Myanmar.

The NEAT+ field test took place in two locations within Hpa An Township: Saint Chaung and Sein Pa La village. These locations were selected by NRC. Separate environmental sensitivity assessments were completed for each location. The Livelihoods and Food Security (LFS) expert completed the activity module based on NRC’s current activities in Sein Pa La village (Agriculture, Livestock and Irrigation modules). Neither the WASH nor the Shelter and Settlements modules were completed as NRC does not have these specific technical activities in the area of the pilot.

The findings of this report are based on a combination of a field test of the NEAT+, six focus group discussions including participatory mapping with community groups, and a secondary data review. In this report, the results of the NEAT+ are analyzed in the context of the focus group discussions, secondary data review, and the NRC programme of work to provide tailored recommendations for mitigating environmental risks in Hpa An, and more broadly on a national level.

 

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To learn more about NEAT+ please visit https://ehaconnect.org/resources/neat

To find out how it can support your organization’s planning, contact the UNEP/OCHA Joint Environment Unit (ochaunep@un.org).

Download

Additional Resource

Restocking woody biomass to reduce social and environmental pressures in refugee-hosting landscapes

This report on the situation in Northwest Uganda, published by the World Agroforestry, examines the quantity and composition of biomass in the two refugee settlements and the buffer zone around them. It is based on an inventory that counted and identified every seedling and sapling and all standing trees on 234 circular plots and recorded their diameter at breast height (DBH), bole height, total height and crown diameter.

‘It may sound elaborate to a lay person but with that information we can predict the quantity of woody biomass available and how long it can support community needs,’ said Clement Okia of ICRAF Uganda. ‘It also gives guidance on investment needed to undertake restoration work.’

Shrubs and stumps were also captured.

‘Identifying stumps is usually difficult but it was done with support from local forestry experts and the community,’ the authors note.

Findings include considerable biodiversity in the form of 81 tree species. But extraction pressure is intense. Most stumps were of large trees (DBH greater than 20 cm), indicating a decline in mature trees. This is worrying as large trees offer the most ecosystem services and are the ‘mother trees’ that provide genetically diverse seeds.

The study sought to answer the question: how much woody above-ground biomass is available for refugees and hosts? After calculations that factored in calorific value, it was found to reach a total of around 1,423,345 tons across the two settlements and buffer zone.

This sounds considerable but, given the needs, the woody biomass within the two refugee settlements could be exhausted within four years, a terrifying prospect. Utilizing the biomass outside the refugee settlements in the buffer zone would extend this time period but create conflict with local communities.

The report concludes that urgent measures are needed to stem the loss of biomass and diverse species. It recommends several actions.

  • Perform tree inventories prior to plot allocation so that appropriate options for management can be put in place by and for the refugees.
  • Create a system for tree planting, growing, regeneration and protection with officials, refugee and host communities, support agencies and others.
  • Achieve a consensus on priority areas to plant, regenerate and protect.
  • Agree on how to control burning of biomass and contain livestock.
  • Note endangered tree species and build awareness of them.

 

 

Download the report here.

 

 

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Additional Resource

The Migration-Environment Nexus: the situation in Northwest Uganda

The thesis of this report, published by the World Agroforestry, is that refugees inevitably place strain on natural resources and ecosystems. However, severe damage can be averted if environmental thinking becomes part of humanitarian responses.

This may sound like a tall order. Saving lives is humanitarian workers’ primary concern. But the environment is in itself lifesaving, the report says.

Further, the authors emphasize that allowing the environment to deteriorate also deteriorates the ability to save lives and can even cause new threats: ‘People may begin to fight over the remaining resources.’

The core humanitarian sectors of water and health depend upon healthy, functioning ecosystems, they argue. And taking measures, such as catchment-based planning for water, as early as possible can make a vast difference to the well-being of populations caught up in the rapidly changing circumstances of a refugee influx.

Besides refugees’ urgent need for wood for shelter, warmth and cooking, other drivers like outsiders taking advantage of the turmoil can degrade natural resources too.

‘Law enforcement structures often become weak or non-existent,’ the authors note. ‘This opens the door for persons to exploit natural resources in any model they are capable of.’

The true value of natural resources is generally underestimated. From 2014 to 2017 less than 2% of the budget of the UN Refugee Agency in Uganda went on the environment although refugees rely almost entirely on trees for energy.

Were it to be monetized — taking FAO’s estimate that a refugee in Uganda requires about 3.5 kg of wood a day for cooking — the value of woodfuel contributed by the country’s forests, woodlands and scattered trees to the refugee response has a staggering value of a USD 96 million a year.

The report concludes that ‘humanitarian response needs to embrace sustainable land management and restoration, if need be’ and recommends that every refugee setting includes three key aspects.

  • A unit that responds to environmental issues from the start.
  • Environmental impact assessments to reduce negative externalities.
  • Land allocated to refugees to plant or regenerate their own sources of wood.

 

None of this is entirely new. Importantly, the joint Environment Unit of the United Nations Environment Programme and United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs has developed the Nexus Environmental Assessment Tool (NEAT+), a screening tool to identify environmental concerns before a refugee intervention.

‘Nexus thinking is crucial,’ said lead author Lalisa Duguma. ‘We need to go beyond seeing issues in refugee-hosting areas as simply migration matters and see them instead as a challenge that we must address to ensure sustainability of the sociological systems that support life. This requires multi-faceted thinking that takes into account interdependent factors.’

 

Download the report here.

 

 

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Additional Resource

Mozambique Shelter Cluster & UNDP – General strategy for risk reduction linked to asbestos cement

This strategy addresses awareness, assessment and management of asbestos cement material present in debris and damaged roofing following Cyclone Idai in Mozambique (2019). Drawing from the case study, the strategy (document) provides a general outline of key steps to raise awareness (presentation) ; design trainings; and plan and implement safe removal, handling and disposal of asbestos in emergency situations (Guidance Note)

 

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Additional Resource

Reducing Environmental Impacts of Vector Control Chemicals in Emergencies

Disasters can create environments in which vectors can increase dramatically and spread diseases. However, the chemicals most commonly used to dispose of these vectors can damage the environment and health. This paper provides guidance on how to create post-disaster sanitary efforts that remove the amount of vectors while simultaneously reducing harm to the environment and human health.

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Moving Energy Initiative

The Moving Energy Initiative is an initiative which seeks to integrate clean energy in displacement settings with the help of original research. The Initiative provides reports and tool kits which details the costs, risks and benefits of various energy systems when organizing cooking, power and future sustainability in refugee camps.

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The Knowledge Hub on Health and Migration

The Knowledge Hub on Health and Migration is a joint effort committed to building expertise on the public health aspects of migration and making  information in this area widely available. The Hub provides tool kits, training materials, reports and schooling to better prepare for the health needs which arise during large-scale migration events.

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Prepare Center

PrepareCenter.org is an initiative established by the Red Cross which provides reports, case studies and training materials to encourage better preparedness for emergencies. It also provides insights and tools to integrate themes such as climate change, environment and urban resilience in disaster preparedness.

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Haiti Environment and Humanitarian Action Country Study

The Environment and Humanitarian Action (EHA) – Haiti country study is one in a series of country-level studies that assess the extent to which environmental concerns have been mainstreamed in humanitarian action. In April 2015, the Joint UNEP/OCHA Environment Unit, supported by Groupe URD, undertook a mission to Haiti to look at environmental mainstreaming in the humanitarian response to floods, tropical storms, hurricanes and mainly on the aftermath of the 2010 earthquake.

 

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Nepal Environment and Humanitarian Action Country Study

The Nepal Environment and Humanitarian Action (EHA) country-level study is one in a series of studies undertaken by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) / UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) Joint Environment Unit (JEU) in 2015 that assesses the extent to which environmental concerns have been mainstreamed in humanitarian action. It provides guidance to humanitarian actors on how to improve environmental mainstreaming in a rapid onset emergency.

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Afghanistan Environment and Humanitarian Action country study

The Afghanistan Environment and Humanitarian Action (EHA) country-level study is one in a series of studies undertaken by the Joint UNEP/OCHA Environment Unit (JEU) in 2015 that assesses the extent to which environmental concerns have been
mainstreamed in humanitarian action. This study provides guidance and advice to humanitarian actors on how to improve environmental mainstreaming in a protracted crisis.

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CARE: Resilience Marker

CARE’s Resilience Marker is a tool that allows teams to self-assess how well resilience has been integrated into their work. It supports CARE members, affiliates, country offices, and partners with assessing projects, programmes and the overall portfolio. This process encourages engagement and learning, in particular about ways in which we can improve and support the effective integration of resilience into all our programming in accordance with contextual constraints and opportunities.

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Quantifying Sustainability in the Aftermath of Natural Disasters (QSAND)

QSAND is a self-assessment tool to promote and inform sustainable approaches to relief, recovery and reconstruction after a natural disaster.

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Case study: Philippines Coconut Timber following typhoon Haiyan

An example of inter-sectoral coordination on environmental issues in humanitarian response

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Environmental Impact Assessments in Refugee Crises

A short report on environmental impact assessments in refugee crises

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Groupe URD: Implications of Refugee Settlements on the Natural Environment and on Refugee and Host Community Resilience

This study by Groupe URD aimed to identify and measure the environmental impact of forced migration in two contexts: Lebanon, where there are a large number of Syrian refugees who have fled the crisis in their country, and Cameroon, where there are Central African and Nigerian refugees. It was carried out in 2017 as part of a research project for the Global Disaster Preparedness Center.

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NRC: The Ecological Impact of Refugee/Returnee Programmes

An Norwegian Refugee Council evaluation report on the ecological impacts of refugee programs and actions taken to mitigate such impacts.

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UNHCR: Refugee Operations and Environmental Management

Guidance by UNHCR on environmental management during refugee operations.

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UNEP: Key Things to Know About Environment as “Cross Cutting” Issue in Early Recovery

This brief UN Environment note provides an overview of key environmental considerations for early recovery actors, including a short cluster-specific checklist.

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UNEP/UNISDR: Reducing Risk Through Environment in Recovery Operations

This UNEP/UNISDR paper provides an introductory review of the recovery operations in terms of integrating environment and long-term disaster risk reduction.

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UN Habitat: SHERPA for Sustainable Housing Projects

UN Habitat SHERPA is an easy to use self-evaluation tool for actors involved in the planning, design, construction and assessment of housing projects. SHERPA assesses housing projects, helping to improve sustainability across site selection, the design process, as well as the life cycle and recyclability of building materials used.

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UNHCR Environmental Guidelines

Key environmental considerations in UNHCR’s operations

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A Note on Environmental Mainstreaming

Environmental mainstreaming is a process by which environmental considerations become part of the existing core work of a predominantly non-environmental sector. This short explanation outlines the mechanisms of environmental mainstreaming and how it typically occurs.

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IFRC Green Response

IFRC’s Green Response seeks to save lives and reduce suffering without risking damage to the livelihoods, health and survival of affected people and improving the environmental outcomes of life-saving operations.

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Environment tip sheet emergency shelter – Sudan

This tip sheet aims to give specific guidance to the Non-Food Items & Emergency Shelter Sector in Sudan regarding how to better integrate environment in their humanitarian activities.

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IFRC, Shelter Country Profiles

IFRC Green Response Project that aims at developing country profiles with a summary of the main environmental issues of concern for shelter and settlements practitioners, that can be used for preparedness or contextualised for informing sustainable response.

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Shelter Cluster Sustainable Shelter Solutions pilots

Sustainable shelter solutions are a strategic focus of the SC. The needs to accomplish durable solutions in rural and urban settings vary widely in the Somalia context and is challenging for long-term programming.

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Disaster Rebuilding: Environmentally Responsible Design Principles

Principles for environmentally responsible disaster recovery and reconstruction, developed by the World Wide Fund for Nature Environment and Disaster Management Program.

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Timber as a construction material in humanitarian operations

Guidance for using timber as a construction material in humanitarian response.

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Shelter Sector Environmental Guidelines

This document focuses on housing reconstruction after natural hazard events that must be carried out in highly difficult circumstances and there are expectations to be operational very quickly. Its purpose is (1) to convey the full range of environmental and environmental health issues associated with housing construction, and (2) to provide a guided framework for considering these issues in the siting, design and implementation of housing projects, particularly in post-disaster reconstruction and in risk-prone areas.

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Evidence on Demand, Mainstreaming Environment and Climate Change into Humanitarian Action

This study, published by Evidence on Demand provides an overview of the key reasons that environmental and climate change issues are relevant in the context of humanitarian action.

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