Water and Sanitation (WASH)
Key environmental issues linked to water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH)
Key environmental issues linked to water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH)
The Nexus Environmental Assessment Tool (NEAT+) is an environmental screening tool that allows humanitarian actors to quickly identify issues of environmental concern before designing longer term emergency or recovery interventions. It is conducted on Kobo data collection platform (on phone, tablet or computer) and produces an automatically generated report in Excel, categorizing areas of risk into high, medium and low and providing associated narrative that can be helpful towards mitigation.
The NEAT+ and associated guidance material provide more detail on the tool.
On World Humanitarian Day 2018, UN Environment published an overview of key environmental considerations for humanitarian action.
The Rapid Environmental Impact Assessment in Disaster (REA) is a tool to identify, define, and prioritize potential environmental impacts in disaster situations.
The Handbook is one of the most widely known and internationally recognized tools for the delivery of the quality humanitarian response
This document links key environmental considerations to WASH projects and provides guidance for good environmental management throughout the project cycle.
An overview of best practices drawn from lessons learned in the field over more than 30 years with both participatory approaches and technical design.
This paper describes the main environment-related issues which should be considered and addressed in programs relating to WASH planning and ensuing practices in an emergency operation.
This paper provides an overview of key concepts and considerations with regards to the environment and water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) activities undertaken in emergency operations.
Checklist for potential environmental impacts of WASH interventions
The GRRT is a toolkit and training program designed to increase awareness and knowledge of environmentally responsible disaster response approaches.
This study, conducted in 2019, focuses on the definition of climate vulnerability with operational and political perspectives and delivers guidelines for assessing climate vulnerability in long-term crises, such as in conflict-affected countries and recurrent disaster-prone areas.
The research draws on an extensive academic literature review in the fields of biology, political science, sociology and geography. It derives data from a variety of innovative projects and methods in the field of development and humanitarian aid, induced and encouraged by the Grand Bargain. In addition, the research offers a contribution to the IKI Project carried out by the UNEP/OCHA Joint Environment Unit in the refugee camp of Gitega Province in Burundi.
The study is available in French only.
This strategy addresses awareness, assessment and management of asbestos cement material present in debris and damaged roofing following Cyclone Idai in Mozambique (2019). Drawing from the case study, the strategy (document) provides a general outline of key steps to raise awareness (presentation) ; design trainings; and plan and implement safe removal, handling and disposal of asbestos in emergency situations (Guidance Note)
Disasters can create environments in which vectors can increase dramatically and spread diseases. However, the chemicals most commonly used to dispose of these vectors can damage the environment and health. This paper provides guidance on how to create post-disaster sanitary efforts that remove the amount of vectors while simultaneously reducing harm to the environment and human health.
The Flood Resilience Portal is a tool which provides open access to resources to build resiliency to floods. It issues reviews of past responses and provides community-specific flood resilience measurements.
PrepareCenter.org is an initiative established by the Red Cross which provides reports, case studies and training materials to encourage better preparedness for emergencies. It also provides insights and tools to integrate themes such as climate change, environment and urban resilience in disaster preparedness.
The WHO UNFCCC Climate and Health Country Profile Project provides country-specific estimates of current and future climate hazards. It also identifies the effects of climate change on human health and identifies mitigation and policy change actions. The data is collected via biennial surveys and was completed in 2017. The next series will be released in 2019 and will cover approximately 80 countries.
The Environment and Humanitarian Action (EHA) – Haiti country study is one in a series of country-level studies that assess the extent to which environmental concerns have been mainstreamed in humanitarian action. In April 2015, the Joint UNEP/OCHA Environment Unit, supported by Groupe URD, undertook a mission to Haiti to look at environmental mainstreaming in the humanitarian response to floods, tropical storms, hurricanes and mainly on the aftermath of the 2010 earthquake.
The Nepal Environment and Humanitarian Action (EHA) country-level study is one in a series of studies undertaken by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) / UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) Joint Environment Unit (JEU) in 2015 that assesses the extent to which environmental concerns have been mainstreamed in humanitarian action. It provides guidance to humanitarian actors on how to improve environmental mainstreaming in a rapid onset emergency.
The Afghanistan Environment and Humanitarian Action (EHA) country-level study is one in a series of studies undertaken by the Joint UNEP/OCHA Environment Unit (JEU) in 2015 that assesses the extent to which environmental concerns have been
mainstreamed in humanitarian action. This study provides guidance and advice to humanitarian actors on how to improve environmental mainstreaming in a protracted crisis.
A short report on environmental impact assessments in refugee crises
This study by Groupe URD aimed to identify and measure the environmental impact of forced migration in two contexts: Lebanon, where there are a large number of Syrian refugees who have fled the crisis in their country, and Cameroon, where there are Central African and Nigerian refugees. It was carried out in 2017 as part of a research project for the Global Disaster Preparedness Center.
An Norwegian Refugee Council evaluation report on the ecological impacts of refugee programs and actions taken to mitigate such impacts.
This brief UN Environment note provides an overview of key environmental considerations for early recovery actors, including a short cluster-specific checklist.
This UNEP/UNISDR paper provides an introductory review of the recovery operations in terms of integrating environment and long-term disaster risk reduction.
Environmental mainstreaming is a process by which environmental considerations become part of the existing core work of a predominantly non-environmental sector. This short explanation outlines the mechanisms of environmental mainstreaming and how it typically occurs.
IFRC’s Green Response seeks to save lives and reduce suffering without risking damage to the livelihoods, health and survival of affected people and improving the environmental outcomes of life-saving operations.
A WHO compilation of fact sheets and mitigating processes for water, sanitation, and hygiene education.
A WaterAid briefing note explaining why improved WASH services are central to any climate change adaptation strategy
An explanation of the links between WASH and Environment by UNICEF
WASH Cluster Homepage
A collection of environmental sustainability tools by the WASH Alliance
A paper on environmental preservation, protection and recovery in WASH programs
A collection of different resources on WASH and environment
This study, published by Evidence on Demand provides an overview of the key reasons that environmental and climate change issues are relevant in the context of humanitarian action.