Virtual Environmental and Humanitarian Adviser Tool – (VEHA Tool) is a tool
to easily integrate environmental considerations in humanitarian response. Field Implementation guidances are useful for the design and execution of humanitarian activities in the field.

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VEHA - Field Implementation Guidance

Essential Healthcare - Child health
Management of newborn and childhood illness
Conducting vaccination campaigns

Conducting vaccination campaigns


Environmental factors causing/contributing to the needs and affecting the humanitarian activity

The decision to implement a vaccination campaign is based on a series of factors including an assessment of general risk factors such as malnutrition, overcrowding, inadequate hygiene / WASH facilities, and disease-specific risks such as geography, climate, season, and population immunity. It is important to also take into account the feasibility of a campaign based on the characteristics of the vaccine as well as access to population and transport, which can be constrained by environmental factors.

Gender, age, disability and HIV/AIDS implications

Children, the elderly, and people living with the disease are more vulnerable to infections and should be prioritized for vaccinations.


Environmental impact categories

Air pollution
Soil pollution
Water pollution
Cultural acceptance
Impact on wellbeing / mental health

Summary of Impacts
Potential environmental impacts

Lack of or ineffective vaccination campaigns can lead to disease spread through:

  • Touching contaminated surfaces
  • Working in close proximity to infected peoplE
  • Contaminated wateR
  • Contaminated fooD
  •  Contaminated soil
  • Cultural practices such as cultural touching customs
  • Hygiene practices
Impact detail
Detailed potential environmental impact information

Lack of vaccination or ineffective vaccination campaigns can lead to disease spread, which can be exacerbated through the built or natural environment such as contaminated surfaces, working in close proximity to infected people, contaminated water, food, soil, and cultural behaviours such as hygiene practices or frequency of public handshaking, hugging, kissing through to washing of dead bodies and widows prostrating themselves on their dead husbands’ corpses.


Summary of environmental activities
  •  Assess the need for vaccination campaigns.
  • Promote transmission reduction behaviour change
  • Promote the adoption of Long Lasting Insecticide Nets and their safe end of life disposal
Detailed guidance for implementing suggested environmental activities
  • Assess existing vaccination levels, and disease transmission risks and prepare appropriate vaccination campaigns.
  • Promote disease transmission reduction behaviour change such as hand washing, cleaning surfaces, boiling water, sneezing into cloths.
  • Ensure the appropriate usage and disposal of prevention items such as Long Lasting Insecticide Nets (LLINs) for the prevention of malaria, LLINs are usually provided to malnourished people and households, pregnant women, children under age five years, unaccompanied children, and people living with HIV.
Lessons Learnt
Lessons from past experiences

Humanitarian actors responding to the global Covid-19 outbreak have reported their most effective activities being Infection Prevention and Control through hygiene promotion and social distancing.

Activity Measurement
Environmental indicators/monitoring examples
  • Measured reach and success of vaccination campaigns
  • Observed community behaviour change
Main Focus
Focus of suggested activities
  • Prevention of environmental damage
  • Mitigation of environmental damage
  • Environmental enhancement
Resource implications (physical assets, time, effort)

Time to assess vaccination requirements and develop appropriate campaigns. Time to assess cultural behaviours and develop disease transmission behaviour change campaigns.

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