Virtual Environmental and Humanitarian Adviser Tool – (VEHA Tool) is a tool
to easily integrate environmental considerations in humanitarian response. Field Implementation guidances are useful for the design and execution of humanitarian activities in the field.

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VEHA - Field Implementation Guidance

Transport services and fleet management
Cost effective vehicle management

Cost effective vehicle management


Environmental factors causing/contributing to the needs and affecting the humanitarian activity

The operating context, environmental and road conditions will affect the decision and determine technical requirements of the vehicle such as 4WD, air conditioning, or other extra features.

Availability of spare parts in the local market and local knowledge and capacity to achieve all type of maintenance and repairs is also an important factor to consider.

Gender, age, disability and HIV/AIDS implications

Promote equality of opportunity and inclusion for drivers, technicians, and logisticians including minorities and people living with disabilities.


Environmental impact categories

Air pollution
Soil pollution
Water pollution
Climate change

Summary of Impacts
Summary of potential environmental impacts

· Vehicle greenhouse gas emissions
· Soil and water pollution from fuel spills or inappropriate vehicle washing
· Wear and tear/erosion of roads, especially unpaved roads
· Waste and pollution

Impact detail
Detailed potential environmental impact information

Ensure insurance covers for restoring environmental damage e.g. from spillages, waste, or unsustainable sourcing.


Summary of environmental activities

Fleet standardisation can reduce costs and environmental impacts through simplifying:


Maintenance and repairs


Spare parts, fuel, fluids

Procurement and vendor relations

Performance monitoring

Detailed guidance for implementing suggested environmental activities

Fleet standardisation can be useful when similar functions are to be achieved by the given set of vehicles.

Standardising a fleet consists of reducing fleet vehicle diversity, contributing to significant cost savings and gaining efficiency in key processes such as:
· Planning – Costs, assignments, maintenance.
· Vehicle daily operation – Regular checks, use of controls and displays, driving “feel”.
· Maintenance and repairs – Diagnosis, tools, expertise.
· Inventory management – Spare parts, fuel, fluids.
· Procurement and vendor relations – Market research, contracts, invoices.
· Monitoring – Comparing performance among vehicles and drivers, expenditures.

It is important to undertake standardisation not only at vehicle make and model level but also for vehicle major components and equipment. Purchasing one type of filter, for example, can help track consumption while enabling fleet managers to negotiate bulk purchases. Improperly managed standardisation can lead to suspicions of collusion: all decisions about standardising the fleet must be done transparently and with high levels of accountability.

Properly maintain the fleet in a good condition as a properly maintained fleet has the advantage of being both environmentally friendly, but also cost-efficient.

Fleet Management should contribute to the cost efficiency and effectiveness of the organisation while achieving its operational goals. Capturing data, analysing data, and making informed decisions is a basic three-step process to monitor and improve the fleets’ performance. This data should take into account environmental dimensions such as the amount of fuel used and emissions.

Lessons Learnt
Lessons from past experiences

Independent monitoring of agencies responding to the Nepal earthquake found that drivers all came from the same caste and gender.

When this was highlighted, action was taken to improve diversity. This brought an additional benefit of diverse contribution to local knowledge, customs, and even engagement with beneficiaries and understanding of the local environment.

Activity Measurement
Environmental indicators/monitoring examples

# of vehicles < 3 years old

Frequency of vehicle maintenance

Activity Status
Main Focus
Focus of suggested activities

Prevention of environmental damage

Resource implications (physical assets, time, effort)

Time and resources to plan cost-effective vehicle management.

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