Taking account the environment in a Situation Analysis following a crisis
Guidance for Situation Analysis in Sudden Onset Emergencies
How to do a Situation Analysis for sudden onset emergency response and recovery
Identify the key links between environmental factors and humanitarian action:
Are there environmental causes connected to the crisis? Identify key environmental drivers and underlying environmental factors.
Key environmental drivers include land degradation and deforestation, degraded coastlines and wetland ecosystems, the pollution of water, land and air (for example due to improper waste management, emission of pollutants, intensive agriculture and soil salinization), climate change, and natural resource depletion.
Are there any acute environmental issues negatively impacting the lives and livelihoods of affected populations?
What are the gender implications of these environmental issues? How are women, girls, men and boys affected differently?
What are the geographical implications of the humanitarian setting, e.g. which pristine environments are affected and how?
How do environmental issues affect the delivery of humanitarian assistance?
For example is there a shortage of natural resources which means materials need to be brought in; is there environmental pollution; or do natural hazards pose risks?
What capacities exist at community, local and national level to identify, assess and manage environmental concerns?
How might environmental conditions change over time (for example over the next three months) and how could these changes affect humanitarian operations or needs?
Engage environmental actors to close environmental information gaps.
What information on environmental impacts is necessary but missing?
The following environmental dimensions and data layers are important to consider:
land cover and land use
known natural hazards and sources of potential risk to human health (e.g. waste dumps).
location of surface- and groundwater (including quality and flow data if possible).
location of forests, woodlands and other potential sources of energy.
location of environmentally sensitive sites, protected areas and cultural sites.
known indigenous land claims, land cadastres and natural resource concession boundaries.
distribution of known resource-dependant livelihoods.
Assessing the environmental consequences of an emergency and prioritizing the response actions based on the needs, forms the foundation of a coherent, efficient and sustainable humanitarian response.
Response and Recovery Planning
Environment is included into response plans in order to improve programme quality and accountability to disaster-affected people.
Environmental mainstreaming is dependent on successful resource mobilization, where environmental concerns must be integrated in funding proposals in order to secure funding.
Successful integration of environment into the implementation of humanitarian response requires that environment be included into preparedness and planning phases, but also effective coordination with national actors.
Response monitoring is about creating evidence for humanitarian actors about what actions should be taken to address shortcomings and fill gaps in in the response, with the aim of improving accountability towards affected populations, local government, donors and the general public.